Summary: Nissen says consumers are paying more attention to package labels, and legislation is requiring food companies to proactively reveal what goes in to their products. This has made downsizing a popular way to handle growing pressure to cut calories and improve healthiness in processed foods.
pick up on
H: Notice something, become aware of it. “She didn’t pick up on my impatience.” She didn’t notice that I was impatient. “Company X picked up on consumers’ desire for luxury items.”
H: What kind of nutrients and other components a food item contains. You could improve nutritional content by reducing the amount of trans fat or sugar for example.
be upfront about
H: To be upfront about something is to be open and honest about it. We don’t try to hide it. “Company X was upfront about the pay cut employees would have to take.” “She was upfront about her refusal to work weekends.”
S: 率直な、正直な、大胆なとか偏見のないという意味ですね。金融の世界では「先払いの」とか「前払いの」という意味で使いますね。upfront paymentと言えば、「前払いの支払い」という意味ですね。
H: The words healthy and healthful are often disputed among native speakers. Some say that healthy should only refer to physical condition and healthful to things that make us healthy. So a healthy person versus healthful food. However, the dictionary I always use says it’s perfectly okay to say healthy food. If you want differentiate between the two words, it’s fine, but you don’t have to. Though people are always just healthy, never healthful.
H: An unpleasant situation that can’t be denied. “The harsh reality is that we have to lay off some staff.” “The harsh reality is that crime is increasing.”
S: painful truthなどとも言いますね。
H: Watchdog groups, watchdog organizations, they monitor certain activities. They make sure that people and groups are following the law, that they’re doing what they claim to be doing, that sort of thing. There are charity watchdog organizations, for example. They monitor charities to see if they’re actually giving money and support to the people that need it, that they claim they’re helping. Likewise consumer watchdog organizations, they make sure consumers aren’t getting cheated, that the things they buy are reliable.
S: watchdogというのは文字どおり「番犬」のことですね。そこから比喩的に監視する人、番人、お目付け役、という意味で使いますね。別の言い方をすれば、regulatory groupのことですね。
健康重視の H: Focus on health, revolving around health. Likewise there is data-centric analysis and customer-centric service.
H: This can mean a supply of weapons but here we’re talking about metaphorical weapons, you know, the resources someone has to achieve a task. “We used everything in our arsenal to win the contract. We talked about our low prices, our experienced staff.”
S: 元々は武器庫とか、兵器工場といった意味ですね。そこから一般に「蓄え」とか「資源」「宝庫」といった意味でも使いますね。an arsenal of informationと言えば、「情報の宝庫」といった意味ですね。
position oneself with
H: Take a position, establish a position regarding some group. We also say position oneself as. And that would focus on the service or the reputation being established. “Company X has positioned itself as a provider of affordable clothing for young people.” “Company X has positioned itself as a luxury fashion brand.”