英語グレイゴBLOG (NHKラジオ講座ディクテ)



H: Pearson lists some things that people bought in large quantities before the Great Recession. And Grace says the retail stores will not disappear entirely. Nissen describes the store of the future as incorporating facial recognition, robots that get purchased items from a warehouse, and deliveries to customers’ homes by driverless car or drone.

dine out
H: Or eat out. That would work, too. They both mean eating outside the home. The opposite expressions are dine in or eat in, which mean eat at home. Things like “We always eat in on Sundays so we can get to bed early.” Or “They dined in on Valentine’s Day. Just a romantic dinner at home for two.”
S: dine out、eat out、同じような意味で使いますね。外食する。その反対はdine in、eat inですけれど、eat in、最近は日本語としても使われますね。コンビニの一角などにイートインスペースなどと書いたところがあります。

Things have changed.
H: The situation has changed. Times have changed. “Working here used to be very stressful but things have changed. The bosses are more supportive now.” Or divorce used to be very embarrassing, you know, a social disgrace. But things have changed. 

in particular
S: particularlyという副詞を使うこともできますね。

As we know it
H: Something in the form that we’re used to. In the way we’re accustomed to it existing. Smartphones, for example, changed communications as we knew it. Or driving as we know it today, you know, driving by ourselves or our own vehicles, someday that may completely disappear.

greet by name
H: Nissen says you’ll walk into a store in the future and be greeted by name. Someone will use your personal name when they say hello. The point here is that they recognize you. They know your name. “Our president knows all the staff, all 100 people, and greets them by name.”

facial recognition
H: Technology that recognizes a person’s face and then gives them access to something. Likewise, there’s voice recognition technology. Maybe someday we’ll open our front doors with facial recognition technology or start our driverless cars that way.
S: 他にもrecognitionを使ったものいくつかありますね。voice recognitionと言えば音声認識、それからfingerprint recognition、指紋認証、指紋認識。日本語でもOCRとして使うのはoptical character recognition、光学文字認識です。

via driverless car or drone
H: Here drone refers to those little flying copter things, which personally I’m just dying to get one one day. It looks like fun. But it can also refer to someone who does tedious or menial work, a drudge. “She quit her job because she felt like a corporate drone. Instead she opened her own consulting firm.”
S: drone、日本語でいうドローンのことも指しますね。その他にも怠け者といったような意味があります。また、動詞としては、He droned on and on.(彼はつまらないことを長々とクドクドと喋った)という意味で使います。


H: Nissen explains how his job responsibilities ended up being very different from what he was originally told he would do. Salmans asks why retail sales are suffering amid a number of positive economic indicators, such as low unemployment. And Grace says higher wages can be a burden on retailers, which have low profit margins.

be excited by the challenge
H: Exhilarated at the idea of doing something difficult or challenging. Excited by how it will stretch our abilities. “He was excited by the challenge of opening up a new market.” Or “I was excited by the challenge of working in a new industry.”

thanks to
H: Someone or something is responsible for this. And we use this in good and bad situations. “She’s very well-off, thanks to her wise investments.” Or “I got there late, thanks to a traffic jam.”
S: 日本語でもそうですが、何々のおかげで、というのは良い場合、悪い場合、両方使いますね。

H: This can mean physical health, though Nissen is talking about conditions and behaviors that make it difficult for a person or a thing to function well. “The atmosphere at the Company X is very unhealthy. It’s extremely competitive and stressful.” And when a company is struggling, we also say it’s ailing. “The ailing retailer closed three stores last year.”
S: 同じような意味でailingも使うとヘザーさんが言っていましたね。健全でない、病んでいるという意味ですね。

at a record pace
H: Nissen says American retail chains are closing stores at a record pace. At the fastest rate in history. If we use record alone this way as an adjective, it means the highest, the most etc. Things like  “We’ve seen record sales this quarter” okay record high sales but if I say “a record drop in sales” then that’s the biggest drop in history.
S: record breakingとも言いますが、ただ単にrecordだけでも記録的なという意味になりますね。

due to
H: In this case due to means caused by, because. “He’s off today due to a cold.” Or “The flight was canceled due to poor weather.” It can also mean scheduled to. “Company X is due to release its new model next month.” Or “The plane is due to arrive at 4:30 pm.”

gas prices
S: gasというのはgasolineの略ですね。

low margin
H: Down towards the bottom, Grace says rising wages can be difficult for low-margin companies like retail stores. When a company’s revenue is not much more than its expenditures. A low-margin car, for example, sells for not much more than it cost to make it.
S: 例えばOurs is a low-margin business. We have to watch every penny.なんて言いますね。「我々のビジネスはもうけの薄い商売である。だから1セントでも無駄にしてはいけない」というような言い方ですね。

buying habits
H: Our regular practices regarding buying, what we regularly do when buying. We use habits with a lot of words. Eating habits. “She picked up bad eating habits in college.” Or spending habits. “He has very good spending habits. He doesn’t make impulse purchases.” 
S: impulse purchaseというのは衝動買いのことですね。



English Lit


What are you up to?
K:このbe up toはイディオムで何かする予定である、あるいは何かをしているという意味になります。カジュアルな質問です。挨拶にもなります。

be working on 何々
K:このwork onがイディオムで何々に従事しているということです。レストランで給仕係がAre you done?(もう終わりましたか?)とかですね、Are you working on it?なんてですね聞く場合もございますね。

be not due until いついつ
K:ここではThat’s not due until next month.と女性がびっくりしています。

get a head start
K:わかっているよ、有利なスタートをきりたいんだ、と男性。I know. I want to get a head start.と言っています。

What page are you on?

 You’re way ahead of the game.

K:状況を伝える表現。このbe ahead of the game、これはゲームや競争で先を行っている、そういう意味ですが、それにway、遥かに、を加えて強調しています。

U R the ☆
All: You’re way ahead of the game, too!

All: You’re on top of it! Right on!


What page are you on?
Really? You’re way ahead of the game.

J: In English, we say already. I’m already such and such.
K: OK. 戦争と平和というのはどうでしょうね、Carolynさん。
C: In English, it’s War and Peace. It’s a famous novel written by Tolstoy.
K: 「最終章を読んでいる」というのはどうでしょうね、Jeffさん。
J: We use the word “on.”
J: Uh-huh. I’m already on such and such. I’m already on the last chapter. I’m already on page 700. We use on.
K: last chapter、これが最終章ということで。onを使う。「私は大変な差をつけていると思います」というのはI thinkでいいんですかね。
C: Yeah, that’s right. You could say I think I’m way ahead of the game.


I’m already on the last chapter of War and Peace. I think I’m way ahead of the game.



O: Chris, the rhythm of “I’m at the cafe.” Is it very different from “I’m a teacher?”
C: Absolutely not. I mean it may sound different, but basically it’s exactly the same rhythm. I, at the cafe. As we’ve said the verb to be is meaningless, so we’re going to focus on I, at the cafe. It’s the same.
O: I’m a teacher.もI’m at the cafe.も同じリズムで作られているということですね。be動詞を意識しないで主語と説明語句を並べる感覚です。The same question to you, Roza. “I’m sitting.” Does it have a different feeling from “I’m a teacher?”
R: Meaning-wise it’s different, but the rhythm is actually the same. I’m sitting. I’m sitting. It’s the same as I’m a teacher. I’m a teacher. See?


He’s at the station.

O: この文はbe動詞を使った説明型の文です。この文ではbe動詞の後ろに前置詞atを中心とした前置詞句が使われていますが、前回のWe’re happy. I’m a teacher.など形容詞、名詞を使った文と何ら変わりのないリズムを持っています。be動詞には相変わらず意味は無くHeを場所at the station(駅で)で説明している。ただそれだけのことです。He at the station. He = at the stationという気軽な意識で口から出せばいいだけのことです。実際に説明型の文で後ろにどんな要素が来るのか確認しましょう。
Gary was(ギャリーは)の後ろにはGary was angry(怒っていました)形容詞を使ったり、Gary was a chef.(シェフだった)名詞を使ったり、Gary was on duty.(勤務中でした)前置詞句を使ったり、Gary was fishing.(魚釣りをしていました)動詞ing形を使ったり、Gary was injured at school.(学校で怪我をした)過去分詞も使うことができます。