英語グレイゴBLOG (NHKラジオ講座ディクテ)



SUMMARY: McMillan says obesity increases such things as absenteeism and healthcare claims, while Ueda relates his surprise at America’s high healthcare costs among industrialized countries. Grace says companies offer various services to improve employees’ peace of mind. And McMillan describes a program run by one of A&A’s competitors, which Wu praises as an example of peer pressure working for good.

drive up
H: Push up, force to increase. “Bad weather can drive up the price of fresh food.” “Instability in the financial markets drove up the yen against the dollar.”

healthcare claim
H: Here’s a word that is often used differently, English and Japanese. In Japanese, claim often means complaint, right? But in English we would say “I filed a complaint with the personnel department.” Or “I submitted a complaint to the manufacturer.” We wouldn’t say claim in this situation. But regarding insurance policies and such, a claim is a request for payment. “She filed a claim with the insurance company after her house was robbed.”
S: 日本語のクレームというのは苦情という意味で使うことがありますが、英語ではそういう使い方をしません。特に保険に関して言えば、医療費の請求額という意味になります。

be expressed as
H: Be presented in a certain form, conveyed in a certain form. Like, “This app tells you how much money to save, expressed as a percentage of your salary.” “This report lists our costs, expressed as a percentage of total sales.”

rank in the bottom quartile
H: When scores and such are divided into four groups, you have quartiles. I searched online and found things like “This mutual fund is in the top quartile for investment returns.” So it’s among the top 25% mutual funds in terms of return on investment.
S: quartile、25パーセントということですね。統計学上の用語です。トップ25パーセントなどとよく使いますね。

life expectancy
H: How long you’re expected to live. Japan, of course, has extremely high life expectancy. We hear about this in the news all the time.

infant mortality
H: This is a sad expression to have to know. It refers to how many children die when they’re still babies. You’ll hear things like “This organization works to lower infant mortality around the world.”

be proactive
S: reactiveの反対ですね。

H: This is surely familiar to everybody, the Chinese practice of healing through the insertion of needles. We would say if we’re going to do this, we would say, “I’m going to get some acupuncture tomorrow.” Or “I have an acupuncture session tomorrow.” And お灸 is called moxibustion.
S: punctureというのは尖ったものなどで刺す、穴を開ける、という意味ですね。それから、お灸、moxibustionというのは、moxaから来ている言葉ですね。日本語の藻草がなまってmoxaになったそうです。

peer pressure
H: Pressure from one’s peers, members of one’s group, to do a certain thing or act a certain way. You can use this about organizations as well as individual people. Such as “Peer pressure could be used to encourage better maternity leave programs.” If top companies do it, then other companies will, too.

motivate someone to
H: Encourage, inspire a person to do something. “Seeing Carl exercise so much motivated me to start jogging.” “His encouragement motivated her to start her own business.”



SUMMARY: Ueda praises American companies spending on their employees’ health. And Grace says their intention is to save money in the long term due to better productivity and happier workers. Wu cites automation and labor-saving devices as factors that have greatly influenced people’s lives and work. And McMillan adds that sitting the whole day and just getting up for a snack also has a negative effect.

commendable and smart
H: Commendable means deserves to be commended, deserves to be praised. “It’s really commendable how Company X promotes paternity leave.” “It’s commendable how much volunteer work he does.”

around the globe
H: Around the world. We also use globe for those ball-shaped maps of the world. I’ve always wanted to get an antique globe for my house. Maybe I will someday.
S: around the globe、あるいはaround the world、the world overなんて言いますね。それから、いまヘザーさんが言っていた、antique globe、アンティークの地球儀。立体的な地図のことはglobeですけれど、mapは平面の地図のことですね。地図帳、地図を集めたものは、atlasというふうに言います。航海用の海図、あるいは航空用の地図は、chartというふうに呼びます。

go that route
H: Or you can say go that route(). Either one is okay. Take a certain approach, follow a certain course. We also say go the something route, like, “He decided to go the freelance route.”
S: ()あるいは()。今ヘザーさんがapproachとかcourseを意味するというふうに言っていましたね。飛行機などのコースのことは()というふうに発音する人が多いですね。それから、He decided to go the freelance route. 「フリーランスの道を行くことにした」「フリーランスという生き方をすることにした」という意味ですね。あるいは、”Let’s go by the scenic route. と言えばですね、「景色のいいルート、観光ルートを辿っていこう」という意味になりますね。

employee morale
H: How employees feel about a job, how enthusiastic they are, how committed. You could say “Our profit sharing program has really boosted employee morale.” “Morale has been very low since the president resigned.”
S: morale surveyといえば、社員の組織に対する意欲とか忠誠心などに関する調査のことですね。climate surveyなどとも言います。

human resource management
S: これをhuman resources managementというふうに言うひともいます。人材のことはhuman resourcesというふうに複数で扱うことが多いからですね。

labor-saving device
H: A device that reduces the amount of physical labor a person needs to do, that reduces the energy we have to expend. “Washing machines are a key labor-saving device in history, aren’t they? We don’t have to scrub clothes by hand anymore. Sewing machines, too.”
S: -savingというフレーズ、他にもたくさんありますね。save moneyから、money-saving。それからenergy-saving、time-saving、water-saving、life-savingなどと使います。

sit around
H: If we’re just sitting around, we’re just sitting. We’re not moving around, we’re not performing any physical activity. And this has a negative connotation. If I said “He just sits around reading all day,” then the implication is that he should be doing something else. Or “She just sat around watching TV and didn’t clean the house at all.”

office cubicle
H: These are enclosed desk spaces where each person has their own box like area surrounded by walls, by partitions. I use to have a cubicle at a past company. I put up pictures of my friends and family on the walls.
S: cubicle farmなんていうフレーズがありますね。キュービクルがたくさん並んでいるオフィスフロアのことですね。それを上から見て農園に例えたもの。そこから連想されるのは、平凡なデスクワーク、mundane desk jobのことです。

not help
H: Has a bad influence on some situation or harmful effect. Things like “I’m nervous about this presentation and his constant criticism doesn’t help.” “I’m trying to concentrate and that music isn’t helping.”


Chikara is a sore loser. チカラは負けっぷりがよくない。

That’s your second strike in a row. I can’t believe you’re a first timer.
It’ll probably be a gutter ball.
Gee! Another strike! You beat me.
Oh my. It’s beginner’s luck.
You haven’t had a single gutter ball. You’ve gotta have one.
That’s a good pun.
Well, we still have 40 minutes left. Care for round 2?
Why not?
You should sign up for the bowling league.
That’s out of my league.
You can pun better than me too. Here you go ahead.

SUMMARY: Ueda asks if a sign recommending that people take the stairs is part of A&A’s new wellness program, and Grace confirms that it is. Wu says that Pearson was inspired by the previous mayor of New York. And she and McMillan describe a number of measures the ex-mayor championed to promote better health. Wu also talks about some of his proposals that were not well-received.

take the stairs
H: Use the stairs to go up and down. Likewise we take the elevator, take the escalator. I took the stairs all the way to my office once on the 14th floor. Or we shouldn’t take the escalator with a stroller.
S: take the stairsと複数形で使いますね。階段。a flight of stairsとか、staircase、stairwayとも言います。

be big on
H: Treat something as important or be enthusiastic about it. Like “Company X is very big on customer service. They do everything they can to keep the customer happy.” Or “She’s very big on baseball, watches games all the time, knows about all the players.”

stationary medication
S: stationary medicationという英語のフレーズがあるわけではないんですね。ここではポール・ピアソンが独自に使っているフレーズ。階段というのは非常に体に良いということですね。
H: Here’s a word that native speakers often misspell. Stationary with an a at the end means remains in one place, like a stationary bike at a gym. But stationery with an e at the end refers to things like paper, pens, writing office supplies, like, stationery supplies or a stationery store.
S: 最後が-aryで終わるstationaryと-eryで終わるstationery。ビニェットにあるstationaryというのは固定されたとか据え付けの意味ですけれど、-eryのstationeryは、文具ということですね。

be in great shape
H: Be strong or robust, in good condition. And this can also be used about things. “Her speech is in great shape. It’s very well-written and she’s been practicing a lot.” “The office is not in great shape right now. Our furniture is old and the carpets are worn down.”
S: be in great shapeの反対はbe in poor shape。in no shapeとも使いますね。I’m in no shape to work. 「今日は働けるような体調ではない」という言い方。それから、in shapeだけを使って、stay in shape、あるいはkeep in shapeと言えば、「いい体調を保つ」「体型を維持する」という意味になりますね。

lead a charge
S: chargeというのは、突撃という意味もありますね。
H: This is to lead a campaign, lead a movement to do something. “He led the charge to fight insider trading.” “She led the charge to promote recycling at the company.”
S: insider trading、インサイダー取引のことですね。

calorie count
H: The amount of calories in a food or drink item. Nuts are a great food but they do have a high calorie count. Likewise many alcoholic drinks have a high calorie count.
S: calorie contentとも言いますね。

H: In this case, work means produce the result you want, produce the desired outcome. “Our new marketing strategy is working very well.” “This time management system works really well. I’m getting a lot done.”

go too far  
H: Take something to an excessive degree. And we also say take something too far. “It’s okay to express your opinion but he went too far. He just wouldn’t shut up.” “She took her exercise too far and injured her knee.”
S: go overboardとも言いますね。